|Glossary - Contd...
Elemental analysis: Quantification of levels of constituent inorganic elements in a biomass. Typically accomplished via ash analysis.
Energy crops: Plant species and/or varieties cultivated to optimize their value for bioenergy uses.
Feedstock : Raw material that is further processed for the purpose of conversion to another product.
Fermentation: Process in which chemical changes occur in an organic substrate through the action of enzymes elaborated by microorganisms. Most fermentation processes are anaerobic (in the absence of oxygen).
Fossil fuel: Solid, liquid or gaseous fuels formed in the ground after millions of years by chemical and physical changes in plant and animal residues under high temperature and pressure. Oil, natural gas and coal are examples of fossil fuels.
Gasification: A thermochemical conversion process (750 to 850 o C) of biomass or other organic matters into gaseous products. It typically occurs in an oxygen-deficient environment (which differentiates form pyrolysis and complete combustion) and with or without catalyst addition. The gaseous products can be used for generation of heat and power, and can also serve as feedstock for production of liquid fuels and chemicals.
Greenhouse gases : Gaseous constituents of the atmosphere, which trap the heat of the sun in the Earth's atmosphere, producing greenhouse effect.
Higher Heating Value (or HHV): The full energy content of a fuel as defined by bringing all products of combustion to 77F (25 o C).
Hydrolysis: Conversion of biomass into sugars and sugar substrates via chemical or biological processes or through biocatalysis.
Lignocellulosics : Biomass that is composed primarily of cellulose and lignin. Typically, it is the structural component of plants, created by photosynthetic activity.
Liquefaction: A thermochemical conversion process of biomass or other organic matters into primarily liquid oil products in the presence of a reducing reagent, e.g, carbon monoxide or hydrogen. Liquefaction is usually conducted in an environment of moderate temperatures (300 to 400 o C) and high pressures.
Lower Heating Value (LHV): It is obtained by is obtained by subtracting the latent heat of vaporization of the water vapor formed by the combustion of the hydrogen in the fuel from the higher heating value.
Municipal Solid Waste (MSW): A waste stream consisting of post-consumer organic components as well as inorganic materials.
Primary biomass: Biomass produced by agriculture and forestry and includes energy crops and agricultural crops such as short rotation trees, grasses and aquatic plants.
Pyrolysis: A thermochemical conversion process (400 to 600 o C) of biomass or other organic matters into primarily liquid (oils) and solid (char products, and some gaseous (methane, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, etc) products in the absence of oxygen. The proportions of the products are dependent on factors such as operating temperature, pressure, oxygen content and biomass feedstock type.
Quad: One quadrillion Btu (10 15 Btu). One Quad is energy equivalent of 172 million barrels of crude oil equivalent.
Reactor: Vessel or equipment used in biomass conversion.
Renewable Energy: Energy derived from a natural, managed or cultivated resource that can be sustained into the future under anticipated climatic conditions. It is energy that will be available for use by next and future generations. Examples are wind, solar, hydro, biomass or geothermal sources.
Residue: A waste product from a process. Also known as residual, byproduct, or coproduct.